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How Do I Know If My Child Is Typically Developing

Published June 30th, 2022 by NYTPS Inc

Blog author: Dr. Ann Marie Ginsberg


Too often people will tell you, “Don’t worry. Every child grows at their own rate,” and while this statement is true, there are certain benchmarks that are considered normal and are helpful in knowing if your preschooler needs any type of assistance.

The 5 Domains of Development in DAYC-2

Child development can be seen through 5 lenses: 1) Cognitive, 2) Communication, 3) Social Emotional, 4) Adaptive and 5) Physical Development, accessed through standardized, age-appropriate (birth through 5-11 years old) developmental tools such as the DAYC-2 (“Developmental Assessment of Young Child - Second Edition”). This is the descriptions of each of the domains of the DAYC-2 evaluations that I share with parents when I’m sharing the evaluations in a CPSE (Committee on Preschool Special Education) meeting:

“The evaluations conducted on your child were standardized and specific to your child’s chronological age. Reading the educational report will help you specifically to know what your child should be doing right now. The items listed are things you can do at home. By focusing on them we are partnering together for your child’s success!

Domain #1 is called Cognitive… Cognition is the way your child thinks and processes information.

Domain #2 is called Communication. Communication is broken into 2 parts: Receptive – what your child is hearing and Expressive – your child being able to respond or ask for assistance.

Domain #3 is called Social Emotional. This domain measures your child’s management of emotions and their ability to establish positive and rewarding relationships with others.

Domain #4 is called Motor Development. This domain is also broken into two parts – Gross Motor which is the large motion like walking up and down the stairs and Fine Skill, which is the small motion like holding a pencil, eating utensil, buttoning a shirt, turning a doorknob or can be sensory.

Domain #5 is called Adaptive or Daily Living skills. A toddler is dependent on their parent for their needs but as a child gets older and closer to kindergarten the goal is for them to be fully independent.”


The 9 Principles of Child Development and Learning

The National Association for the Education of Young Child (NAEYC) shared the following 9 Principles of Child Development and Learning

  1. All areas of development and learning are important. Learning and development follow sequence. Development and learning proceed at varying rates, from child to child.
  2. Development and learning result from the interaction of maturation and experience.
  3. Early experiences have profound effects on development and learning.
  4. Development proceeds toward greater complexity, self-regulation and symbolic or representational capacities.
  5. Children develop best when they have secure relationships.
  6. Development and learning occur in and are influenced by multiple social and cultural contexts.
  7. Because children learn in a variety of ways, teachers need to use a range of teaching strategies.
  8. Play is an important vehicle for developing self-regulation and promoting language, cognition, and social competence.
  9. Development and learning advance when children are challenged. Children’s experiences shape their motivation and approaches to learning.

(Please note: Principles are extracted from the article not a direct number correlation. The link is provided for you to gain a deeper insight and perspective on the topic).

As a parent, the more you can understand and fully participate in your child’s development the better. If your child isn’t in school yet, check out your local library for programming. If you have concerns speak with your pediatrician, since they specialize in children and their diseases. You can also have your child evaluated.

As Jane D. Hull once shared, “At the end of the day, the most overwhelming key to a child’s success is the positive involvement off parents.” When families are actively involved in their child’s learning, the child succeeds!

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